373. Ibn Jarīr aṭ-Ṭabarī has, in his history (vol. 2, p. 1086; also Ibn al-Athīr in his history, vol. 4, p. 478), related from ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Abī Laylā, al-faqīh (the theologian), who was one of those who had risen with (‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad) Ibn al-Ash‘ath to fight al-Ḥajjāj (ibn Yusuf ath-Thaqafī), that he (Ibn Abī Laylā) was exhorting people to jihād by recalling: On the occasion of encounter with the people of Syria I heard Amīr al-mu’minīn, may Allāh exalt his degree of rank among the righteous and may He reward him the reward of martyrs and men of truth, saying:
O’ believers, whoever observes excesses being committed and people being called towards evil and disapproves it with his heart is safe and free from responsibility for it, and whoever disapproves of it with his tongue would be rewarded and he is in a higher position than the former but whoever disapproves it with his sword in order that the word of Allāh may remain superior and the word of the oppressors may remain inferior, catches hold of the path of guidance and stands on the right way, while his heart is lighted with conviction.